澳门新葡亰平台游戏温哥华市鸿栢科学和技术崭

时间:2019-11-01 11:27来源:新葡亰教学
产品简单介绍: Company’sstate-of-the-art motors and drives ensure safety andreliability onrecord-setting gondola system for Germany’s highestmountain 该产品使用精密行星滚柱丝杆传动手艺,内置无刷伺服电机,

产品简单介绍:

Company’sstate-of-the-art motors and drives ensure safety and reliability onrecord-setting gondola system for Germany’s highest mountain

  该产品使用精密行星滚柱丝杆传动手艺,内置无刷伺服电机,适用于具有低、中、高档质量要求的运动调控系列。该产品将放置无刷伺服电机与滚柱丝杆传动结构融为风度翩翩体,伺性格很顽强在大起大落或巨大压力面前不屈电机转子的旋转运动一直通过滚柱丝杠机构转变为推杆的直线运动。该产品可依赖客商的急需开展个性化定战胜务。

ZURICH --(BUSINESS WIRE) --

  The product uses precision planetary roller screw drive technology, built-in brushless servo motor,applicable to a low,medium and high-level performance motion control system. The product will be built integrated brushless servo motor and ball screw drive structure, servo motor rotor rotary motion into linear motion directly by putting a ball screw mechanism. The product can be customized according to customer demand for personalized service.

Long queueswaiting to ascend Germany’s tallest mountain may now be history. And that isnot the only thing historical about the new ABB-powered cable car system thatopened today and can take as many as 580 passengers an hour to the Zugspitze,the Bavarian Alps peak that is Germany’s highest.

产品特征:


This pressrelease features multimedia. View the full release here:http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20171221005676/en/

1、品质优良,寿命长,维护开支低; 2、负载大,刚性好;

笔记

The cablewaybreaks three world records for a pendular, or hanging, cable car system: at 127meters, its steel column is the tallest, with 1,950 meters it overcomes thehighest elevation difference and with a total run of 3,213 meters from basestation to peak, it has the longest span.

3、发热量小,速度调控精度高; 4、结构紧密,外形雅观,应用范围广;

The systemreplaces the 50-year-old Eibsee cableway and will help overcome the Eibsee’snotoriously long waiting times by transporting nearly three times the number ofpassengers per hour.

5、安装灵活,易拆卸维修;

Making therecord-breaking new cableway feasible for the operator, Bayerische ZugspitzbahnBergbahn AG, is an array of innovative technology from ABB, which has extensiveexperience solving transportation challenges in the Alps.

长机总体质量参数 OVERALL TECHNICAL DATA

“InSwitzerland, most cableways and chairlifts use ABB motors and drives,’’ saysHans-Georg Krabbe, Chairman of the Board of ABB AG, Germany. “We are absolutelydelighted to contribute to such a unique project in Germany, too.’’

 

from 

Powerful

基本型号

Model

行程

Range

导程

Extent

最大载荷

Load

重量

Weight

HB IES-130

0-200mm

3mm/5mm/7.5mm

70KN

19KG

HB IES-100

0-200mm

3mm/5mm

16KN

11KG

HB IES-80

0-200mm

3mm/5mm

9KN

6.5KG

手臂的安插节制:   20磅的最卖力和30英寸磅的扭矩

twin-motor design

 

各种手部组件总共具备14个自由度,况兼由前臂,七个DOF腕部以至具备地点,速度和力传感器的十叁个DOF手组成。

The demandsposed by the Bayerische Zugspitzbahn for trouble-free operation andavailability were particularly challenging, requiring a system capable ofoperating 365 days a year, regardless of wind and weather. In such a setting,safe and comfortable transport through the air depends on the perfect interplayof motors, drives and mechanics.

前臂的最底层直径为4英寸,长度大概8英寸,容纳全部十一台电机,

Pulling thegondolas such a long distance at steeps gradients of as much as 104 percent(about 46°) and a speed of 10.6 meter per second requires significant power,which is supplied by two 800-KW three-phase AC motors from ABB that are housedin the cableway’s Valley Station.

手部配备了四十一个传感器(不包蕴触觉感测)。// 每一个难题都配有嵌入式相对地点传感器,// 各类电机都配有增量式编码器。// 每一种导螺杆组件以致花招球关节连杆均被武装为应力传感器以提供力反馈。

ABB’s alpine

千古的手工业设计[4,5]选用了选拔复杂滑轮系统或护套的腱索驱动装置,那三种装置在EVA空间境遇中应用时都会促成深重的毁坏和可信赖性难点。为了制止与肌腱有关的主题素材,手使用柔性轴将电力早前臂的马达传输到手指。使用Mini模块化导螺杆组件将柔性轴的团团转运动转变为手中的直线运动。结果是二个紧凑而不衰的传动系。

legacy


Since the late19thcentury, ABB has built a lasting reputation for safe, reliableand energy-efficient transportation in the alpine region.

英文

In the case ofthe world-famous Jungfrau Railway, a 9-kilometer cog railway that beganoperation in 1912, ABB was responsible for the electrification that made theroute possible. Today, ABB technologies still ensure that the Jungfrau Railwaysafely carries more than a million passengers a year – even during heavysnowfalls – to the Jungfraujoch, which at 3,454 meters above sea level isEurope’s highest train station.

from 

And the world’ssteepest funicular railway recently went into operation in Stoos in the SwissAlps, a 1.7-kilometer route whose two 136-passenger cable cars are powered byhigh-efficiency electric motors designed and built by ABB. The company alsosupplied other key components for the system.

Robonaut’s hands set it apart from any previous space manipulator system. These hands can fit into all the same places currently designed for an astronaut’s gloved hand. A key feature of the hand is its palm degree of freedom that allows Robonaut to cup a tool and line up its long axis with the roll degree of freedom of the forearm, thereby, permitting tool use in tight spaces with minimum arm motion. Each hand assembly shown in figure 3 has a total of 14 DOFs, and consists of a forearm, a two DOF wrist, and a twelve DOF hand complete with position, velocity, and force sensors. The forearm, which measures four inches in diameter at its base and is approximately eight inches long, houses all fourteen motors, the motor control and power electronics, and all of the wiring for the hand. An exploded view of this assembly is given in figure 4. Joint travel for the wrist pitch and yaw is designed to meet or exceed that of a human hand in a pressurized glove. Page 2 Figure 4: Forearm Assembly The requirements for interacting with planned space station EVA crew interfaces and tools provided the starting point for the Robonaut Hand design [1]. Both power and dexterous grasps are required for manipulating EVA crew tools. Certain tools require single or multiple finger actuation while being firmly grasped. A maximum force of 20 lbs and torque of 30 in-lbs are required to remove and install EVA orbital replaceable units (ORUs) [2]. The hand itself consists of two sections (figure 5) : a dexterous work set used for manipulation, and a grasping set which allows the hand to maintain a stable grasp while manipulating or actuating a given object. This is an essential feature for tool use [3]. The dexterous set consists of two 3 DOF fingers (index and middle) and a 3 DOF opposable thumb. The grasping set consists of two, single DOF fingers (ring and pinkie) and a palm DOF. All of the fingers are shock mounted into the palm. In order to match the size of an astronaut’s gloved hand, the motors are mounted outside the hand, and mechanical power is transmitted through a flexible drive train. Past hand designs [4,5] have used tendon drives which utilize complex pulley systems or sheathes, both of which pose serious wear and reliability problems when used in the EVA space environment. To avoid the problems associated with tendons, the hand uses flex shafts to transmit power from the motors in the forearm to the fingers. The rotary motion of the flex shafts is converted to linear motion in the hand using small modular leadscrew assemblies. The result is a compact yet rugged drive train. Figure 5: Hand Anatomy Overall the hand is equipped with forty-two sensors (not including tactile sensing). Each joint is equipped with embedded absolute position sensors and each motor is equipped with incremental encoders. Each of the leadscrew assemblies as well as the wrist ball joint links are instrumented as load cells to provide force feedback. In addition to providing standard impedance control, hand force control algorithms take advantage of the non-backdriveable finger drive train to minimize motor power requirements once a desired grasp force is achieved. Hand primitives in the form of pre-planned trajectories are available to minimize operator workload when performing repeated tasks.

“Today, it isall about making advancements in terms of energy efficiency,” says UeliSpinner, Head of Sales, Key Accounts & Service ABB AG, Switzerland. “Butalso where support, maintenance and service are concerned, we are the preferredpartners of cableway operators.’’

ABB(ABBN: SIX Swiss Ex)


is a pioneering technology leader in electrification products, robotics and

译文

motion, industrial automation and power grids, serving customers in utilities,

from 

industry and transport & infrastructure globally. Continuing a more than

罗布onaut的手把它与此前的高空垄断器系统区分开来。这一个双臂能够装入近年来为宇宙航银行人士的戴手套而规划的享有同后生可畏的地点。手的贰个第意气风发本性是它的掌心自由度,使得罗布onaut能够用二个工具和长轴与前臂的自由度实行排列,进而允许工具在窄小的半空中中以微小的膀子运动使用。

125-year history of innovation, ABB today is writing the future of industrial

图3中所示的每一个手部组件总共具有17个自由度,并且由前臂,多个DOF腕部以致有着地点,速度和力传感器的13个DOF手组成。前臂的尾部直径为4英寸,长度大约8英寸,容纳全数十七台电机,电机调控和电力电子装置,以致独具手持线路。图4提交了该零件的讲解图。花招节距和偏航的一块路程被规划为在加压手套中完结或领古时候的人口。

digitalization and driving the Energy and Fourth Industrial Revolutions. ABB

图4:前臂装配与安排的空间站EVA乘员接口和工具交互的必要为Robonaut手的规划提供了起点[1]。操纵EVA乘员组工具须要力量和灵活的抓握。某个工具必要双手或多手指动作,同时牢牢吸引。拆卸和安装EVA轨道可替换单元(ORU)要求20磅的最努力和30英寸磅的扭矩[2]。

operates in more than 100 countries with about 136,000 employees.p;

手由两片段组成(图5):贰个用以操作的利落工作组,以至多个抓握组件,它同意手在支配或运转给定物体时保持安静的抓握。那是工具使用的基本特征[3]。灵巧套装由三个3 DOF手指(食指和中指)和三个3 DOF可对折手指组成。抓握组由八个单DOF手指(无名氏指和小指)和二个手掌自由度组成。全数的指头都被设置在手掌上。为了合作宇宙航银行职员戴起首套的手的分寸,电机安装在手外,机械重力通过柔性传动系传递。

过去的手工设计[4,5]使用了接收复杂滑轮系统或护套的腱索驱动装置,这两种装置在EVA空间意况中利用时都会促成惨痛的磨损和可靠性难题。为了防止与肌腱有关的主题素材,手使用柔性轴将电力早先臂的马达传输到手指。使用微型模块化导螺杆组件将柔性轴的转动运动调换为手中的直线运动。结果是三个牢牢而不衰的传动系。

图5:手部解剖总的来说,手部配备了四十四个传感器(不蕴涵触觉感测)。各个接头都配有嵌入式相对地点传感器,各样电机都配有增量式编码器。各种导螺杆组件甚至花招球关节连杆均被武装为称重传感器以提供力反馈。除了提供标准阻抗调整之外,大器晚成旦达到规定的标准梦想的抓力,手力调控算法利用非反向驱动手指驱动系统来节省电机能耗务求。预先规划的轨迹情势的手原语可用于在实行重复职务时最大限度地收缩操作员的工作量。


Design of the NASA Robonaut Hand R1

C. S. Lovchik, H. A. Aldridge RoboticsTechnology Branch NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas 77058 Iovchik@jsc.nasa.gov, haldridg@ems.jsc.nasa.gov Fax: 281-244-5534

Abstract

The design of a highly anthropomorphichuman scale robot hand for space based operations is described. This fivefinger hand combined with its integrated wrist and forearm has fourteenindependent degrees of freedom. The device approximates very well thekinematics and required strength of an astronaut's hand when operating througha pressurized space suit glove. The mechanisms used to meet these requirementsare explained in detail along with the design philosophy behind them.Integration experiences reveal the challenges associated with obtaining therequired capabilities within the desired size. The initial finger controlstrategy is presented along with examples of obtainable grasps.

陈诉了用来空间操作的中度拟人化的人类尺度机器人手的打算。这多少个手指手与其重新组合的手法和前臂相结合,具有贰十个独立的自由度。

该装置在经过加压式太空服手套操作时可不行好地相像于宇宙航银行职员的手的运动学和所需的强度。详细说明了用来知足那个供给的编写制定及其背后的宏图意见。集成经验揭破了与收获所需大小内的所需成效相关的挑衅。展现最初手指调整计策以至可获得的抓握的事例。

 1 Introduction

The requirements for extra-vehicularactivity (EVA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to beconsiderable. These maintenance and construction activities are expensive andhazardous. Astronauts must prepare extensively before they may leave therelative safety of the space station, including pre-breathing at space suit airpressure for up to 4 hours. Once outside, the crew person must be extremelycautious to prevent damage to the suit. The Robotic Systems Technology Branchat the NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing robot systems toreduce the EVA burden on space station crew and also to serve in a rapidresponse capacity. One such system, Robonaut is being designed and built tointerface with external space station systems that only have human interfaces.To this end, the Robonaut hand [1] provides a high degree of anthropomorphicdexterity ensuring a compatibility with many of these interfaces. Many groundbreaking dexterous robot hands [2-7] have been developed over the past twodecades. These devices make it possible for a robot manipulator to grasp andmanipulate objects that are not designed to be robotically M. A. DiftlerAutomation and Robotics Department Lockheed Martin Houston, Texas 77058 diftler@jsc.nasa.gov Fax: 281-244-5534 compatible. While several grippers [8-12] havebeen designed for space use and some even tested in space [8,9,11], nodexterous robotic hand has been flown in EVA conditions. The Robonaut Hand isone of several hands [13,14] under development for space EVA use and is closestin size and capability to a suited astronaut's hand.

远望国际空间站(ISS)上的车外活动(EVA)须求十二分可观。这么些珍重和建设活动是昂贵且危殆的。宇宙航银行人士必需在恐怕离开空间站的相对安全从前行行大范围的备选,满含预先呼吸太空性格很顽强在艰难险阻或巨大压力面前不屈空气压力长达4小时。风度翩翩旦在户外,机组职员必需极度严苛,防止守损坏宇宙航行服。美利哥国家航空航天局Johnson航天宗旨的机器人系统本事处这段日子正在开拓机器人系统,以减掉空间站人士的EVA担当,何况服务于飞快反应技巧。三个这么的种类,罗布onaut正在计划和修筑,以便与独有人机界面包车型客车表面空间站系统接口。为此,罗布onaut手[1]提供了高度的比喻灵巧性,以管教与数不完这一个接口的包容性。在过去的四十年中,已经开拓出数不清破纪录的灵活机器人手[2-7]。那一个装备使得机器人操纵器能够引发和垄断(monopoly)未被设计为机器人的物体包容。固然有多少个夹具[8-12]设计用来空间应用,有个别以致在太空中张开了测量试验[8,9,11],但从未灵巧的机械人手在EVA条件下飞行。 罗布onaut手是空中EVA使用中正在开荒的多只手之生机勃勃[13,14],它的尺码和本事最雷同切合宇宙航行员的手。

 2 Design and Control Philosophy

The requirements for interacting withplanned space station EVA crew interfaces and tools provided the starting pointfor the Robonaut Hand design [1]. Both power (enveloping) and dexterous grasps(finger tip) are required for manipulating EVA crew tools. Certain toolsrequire single or multiple finger actuation while being firmly grasped. Amaximum force of 20 lbs. and torque of 30 in-lbs are required to remove andinstall EVA orbital replaceable units (ORUs) [15]. All EVA tools and ORUs mustbe retained in the event of a power loss. It is possible to either buildinterfaces that will be both robotically and EVA compatible or build a seriesof robot tools to interact with EVA crew interfaces and tools. However, bothapproaches are extremely costly and will of course add to a set of spacestation tools and interfaces that are already planned to be quite extensive.The Robonaut design will make all EVA crew interfaces and tools roboticallycompatible by making the robot's hand EVA compatible. EVA compatibility isdesigned into the hand by reproducing, as closely.as possible, the size,kinematics, and strength of the space suited astronaut hand and wrist. Thenumber of fingers and the joint travel reproduce the workspace for apressurized suit glove. The Robonaut Hand reproduces many of the necessarygrasps needed for interacting with EVA interfaces. Staying within this sizeenvelope guarantees that the Robonaut Hand will be able to fit into all therequired places. Joint travel for the wrist pitch and yaw is designed to meetor exceed the human hand in a pressurized glove. The hand and wrist parts are  sizedto reproduce the necessary strength to meet maximum EVA crew requirements.Figure1: Robonaut Hand Control system design for a dexterous robot handmanipulating a variety of tools has unique problems. The majority of theliterature available, summarized in [2,16], pertains to dexterous manipulation.This literature concentrates on using three dexterous fingers to obtain forceclosure and manipulate an object using only fingertip contact. While useful,this type of manipulation does not lend itself to tool use. Most EVA tools arebest used in an enveloping grasp. Two enveloping grasp types, tool and power,must be supported by the tool-using hand in addition to the dexterous grasp.Although literature is available on enveloping grasps [17], it is not asadvanced as the dexterous literature. The main complication involvesdetermining and controlling the forces at the many contact areas involved in anenveloping grasp. While work continues on automating enveloping grasps, a tele-operationcontrol strategy has been adopted for the Robonaut hand. This method ofoperation was proven with the NASA DART/FITT system [18]. The DART/FITT systemutilizes Cyber glove® virtual reality gloves, worn by the operator, to controlStanford/YPL hands to successfully perform space relevant tasks. 2.1 SpaceCompatibility EVA space compatibility separates the Robonaut Hand from manyothers. All component materials meetoutgassing restrictions to prevent contamination that couldinterfere with other space systems. Parts made of different materials aretoleranced to perform acceptably under the extreme temperature variationsexperienced in EVA conditions. Brushless motors are used to ensure long life ina vacuum. All parts are designed to use proven space lubricants.

与陈设的空间站EVA乘员接口和工具交互的供给为Robonaut手安排供给提供了起源[1]。

操纵EVA乘工作者具需求力量(包络)和灵活的抓握(指尖)。有个别工具须要双臂或多手指动作,同期牢牢抓住。 20磅的最大力量。并供给30英寸磅的扭矩来拆除和装置EVA轨道可转换单元(ORU)[15]。

抱有EVA工具和ORU必得在爆发断电时保留。能够塑造包容机器人和EVA的接口,可能创设风流倜傥多级机器人工具来与EVA机组接口和工具实行交互。但是,这三种方法都以不行昂贵的,何况当然会扩张生龙活虎套空间站工具和接口,这么些工具和接口已经布置得非凡广泛。 罗布onaut设计将使机器人的手EVA包容,进而使全部EVA机组人机分界面和工具机器人包容。通过尽或然地再度现身适合宇宙航银行人士手和手段的长空的尺码,运动学和强度,将EVA宽容性设计在手中。手指和协助实行路程的数量再一次现身了加压套装手套的劳作空间。 罗布onaut手掌重现了与EVA分界面交互所需的无数必备手腕。保持在此个尺寸范围内保障罗布onaut手将能够适应全部须要的地点。手腕节距和偏航的合营路程被规划为在加压手套中完成或超越人口。手部和腕部的尺寸能够复出须要的强度,以满意最大的EVA机组人士的渴求。

图1:罗布onaut手控系统设计灵巧的机器人手操纵各样工具具有特别的主题材料。在[2,16]中计算的多数文献都涉嫌到灵巧的支配。那么些文献聚集于采用多个灵巧手指来收获力闭归拢仅使用手指接触来支配物体。就算有用,但这类别型的操作不适用于工具使用。大超多EVA工具最适合用于包围式抓握。除了灵巧的抓握之外,还非得使用工具用手来扶助两种包络抓握类型,工具和力量。即使文献可用以包络抓握[17],但它并不像灵巧手那样先进。重要的繁缛包涵鲜明和操纵关系包络抓握的众多触及区域的力。就算自动化包络抓握的办事仍在三番五次,但Robonaut手已运用远程操作调整计策。United States国家航空航天局DART / 迈腾T系统验证了这种操作方法[18]。 DART / PhaetonT系统运用由操作员佩戴的Cyber​​glove®设想现实手套来调整Stanford / YPL手以打响实施空间相关义务。

 2.1空中宽容性EVA空间宽容性将罗布onaut手与其余过三人分开。全数组件材质均满意除气节制,防止范恐怕压抑其余空间种类的污染。不相同素材制作而成的机件在EVA条件下经受极端温度变化时有所可承当的天性。无刷电机用于确认保障真空中的长寿命。全数零件都两全为利用经过验证的半空中润滑剂。

 3 Design

The Robonaut Hand (figure 1) has a total offourteen degrees of freedom. It consists of a forearm which houses the motorsand drive electronics, a two degree of freedom wrist, and a five finger, twelvedegree of freedom hand. The forearm, which measures four inches in diameter atits base and is approximately eight inches long, houses all fourteen motors, 12separate circuit boards, and all of the wiring for the hand. Y= Figure 2: Handcomponents The hand itself is broken down into two sections (figure 2): adexterous work set which is used for manipulation, and a grasping set whichallows the hand to maintain a stable grasp while manipulating or actuating agiven object. This is an essential feature for tool use [13]. The dexterous setconsists of two three degree of freedom fingers (pointer and index) and a threedegree of freedom opposable thumb. The grasping set consists of two, one degreeof freedom fingers (ring and pinkie) and a palm degree of freedom. All of thefingers are shock mounted into the palm (figure 2). In order to match the sizeof an astronaut's gloved hand, the motors are mounted outside the hand, andmechanical power is transmitted through a flexible drive train. Past handdesigns [2,3] have used tendon drives which utilize complex pulley systems orsheathes, both of which pose serious wear and reliability problems when used inthe EVA space environment. To avoid the problems associated with tendons, thehand uses flex shafts to transmit power from the motors in the forearm to the fingers. The rotary motionof the flex shafts is converted to linear motion in the hand using smallmodular leadscre was semblies. The result is acompact yet rugged drive train.Over all the hand is equipped with forty-three sensors not including tactilesensing. Each joint is equipped with embedded absolute position sensors andeach motor is  equipped with incrementalencoders. Each of the leadscrew assemblies as well as the wristball joint linksare instrumented as load cells to provide force feedback.

3设计

罗布onaut手(图1)总共有二十一个自由度。

它由具有电机和驱动电子装置的膀子,五个自由度的一手和

三个五指,十三自由度的手组成。

前臂的平底直径为4英寸,长度大约8英寸,可容纳全体16个电机,十二个独立电路板以致具备手部布线。

手部组件手部本人分为两有的。三个用于操作的灵敏职业组(食指和中指),以致三个抓握组(无名氏指和小指),它同意手在操作或运行给依期保持安静的抓握目标。那是工具使用的基本特征[13]。

灵巧组由七个三自由度手指(食指和中指)和七个三度自由相持拇指组成。抓握组由三个,贰个自由度指(无名氏指和小指)和一个手掌自由度组成。全体的指头都被安装在掌心上(图2)。

为了同盟宇宙航银行职员戴起头套的手的分寸,电机安装在手外,机械引力通过柔性传动系传递。过去的手工业设计[2,3]接收了使用复杂滑轮系统或护套的腱索驱动装置,这两种装置在EVA空间碰着中应用时都会招致惨痛的毁伤和可信性难题。为了制止与肌腱有关的难题,手使用柔性轴将电力此前臂的马达传输到手指。柔性轴的旋转运动机原由此微型模块化导丝调换来手中的线性运动。结果是紧凑而金城汤池的传动系。

富有的手都安排了44个(不包罗触觉)传感器。各样接头都配有嵌入式相对地方传感器,每一个电机都配有增量式编码器。每种导螺杆组件以致手段关节连杆均被武装为称重传感器以提供力反馈。

3.1

Finger Drive Train

Figure 3: Finger leadscrew assembly Thefinger drive consists of a brushless DC motor equipped with an encoder and a 14to 1 planetary gear head. Coupled to the motors are stainless steel highflexibility flex shafts. The flex shafts are kept short in order to minimizevibration and protected by a sheath consisting of an open spring covered withTeflon. At the distal end of the flex shaft is a small modular leadscrewassembly (figure 3). This assembly converts the rotary motion of the flex shaftto linear motion. The assembly includes: a leadscrew which has a flex shaftconnection and bearing seats cut into it, a shell which is designed to act as aload cell, support bearings, a nut with rails that mate with the shell (inorder to eliminate off axis loads), and a short cable length which attaches tothe nut. The strain gages are mounted on the flats of the shell indicated infigure 3. The top of the leadscrew assemblies are clamped into the palm of thehand to allow the shell to stretch or compress under load, thereby giving adirect reading of force acting on the fingers. Earlier models _of the assemblycontained an integral reflective encoder cut into the leadscrew. This configurationworked well but was eliminated from the hand in order to minimize the wiring inthe hand.

Figure 4: Dexterous finger

3.1指尖传动系统

图3:手辅导螺杆组件

手指驱动器满含

         二个陈设编码器和

         14:1行星齿轮头的无刷直流动机。

与发动机耦合的是不锈钢高柔性软轴。

         柔性轴保持超级短以调减震荡,

         并通过由聚四氟乙烯覆盖的开口弹簧组成的护套实行敬性格很顽强在荆棘载途或巨大压力面前不屈。

在柔性轴的远端是三个微型模块化螺杆组件(图3)。该零件将柔性轴的团团转运动转变为直线运动。该器件包涵:

         一个丝杠,它抱有叁个柔性轴连接和切入此中的轴承座,

         三个统筹作为范晓冬传感器的外壳,支撑轴承,

         二个包罗与外壳合营的导轨的螺母(为了杀绝轴负载)以至总是到螺母上的短丝缆长度。     张笑飞传感器安装在图3所示的壳体的平面上。将丝杠组件的最上部夹紧在手掌中,以允许壳体在负载下张开或减少,进而一贯读取功能于手指。

         组件的较早型号还隐含切入导螺杆的全体式反射编码器。这种布局运维出色,但新兴从手中删除,以尽量裁减手中的接线。

图4:灵巧的手指

3.2

Dexterous Fingers

 Thethree degree of freedom dexterous fingers (figure 4) include the finger mount,a yoke, two proximal finger segment half shells, a decoupling link assembly, amid finger segment, a distal finger segment, two connecting links, and springsto eliminate backlash (not shown in figure). Figure 5 Finger base cam The basejoint of the finger has two degrees of freedom: yaw (+ /- 25 degrees) and pitch(I00 degrees). These motions are provided by two leadscrew assemblies that workin a differential manner. The short cables that extend from the leadscrewassemblies attach into the cammed grooves in the proximal finger segments halfshells (figure 5). The use of cables eliminates a significant number of jointsthat would otherwise be needed to handle the two degree of freedom base joint.The cammed grooves control the bend radius of the connecting cables from theleadscrew assemblies (keeping it larger to avoid stressing the cables andallowing oversized cables to be used). The grooves also allow a nearly constantlever arm to be maintained throughout the full range of finger motion. Becausethe connecting cables are kept short (approximately I inch) and their bendradius is controlled (allowing the cables to be relatively large in diameter(.07 inches)), the cables act like stiff rods in the working direction (closingtoward the palm) and like springs in the opposite direction. In other words,the ratio of the cable length to its

diameter is such that the cables are stiff enough to push the finger openbut if the finger contacts or impacts anobject the cables will buckle, allowing the finger to collapse out of the way.

 Figure 6: Decoupling link The second and thirdjoints of the dexterous fingers are directly linked so that they close withequal angles. These joints are driven by a separate leadscrew assembly througha decoupling linkage (figure 6). The short cable on the leadscrew assembly isattached to the pivoting cable termination in the decoupling link. The flex inthe cable allows the actuation to pass across the two degree of freedom basejoint, without the need for complex mechanisms. The linkage is designed so thatthe arc length of the cable is nearly constant regardless of the position ofthe base joint (compare arc A to arc B in figure 6). This makes the motion ofdistal joints approximately independent of the base joint. figure 2 has aproximal and distal segment and is similar in design to the dexterous fingersbut has significantly more yaw travel and a hyper extended pitch. The thumb isalso mounted to the palm at such an angle that the increase in range of motionresults in a reasonable emulation of human thumb motion. This type of mountingenables the hand to perform grasps that are not possible with the common practiceof mounting the thumb directly opposed to the fingers [2,3,14]. The thumb basejoint has 70 degrees of yaw and 110 degrees of pitch. The distal joint has 80degrees of pitch. Linkages Finger Mount Figure 7:Grasping Finger The actuationof the base joint is the same as the dexterous fingers with the exception thatcammed detents have been added to keep the bend radius of the cable large atthe extreme yaw angles. The distal segment of the thumb is driven through adecoupling linkage in a manner similar to that of the manipulating fingers. Theextended yaw travel of the thumb base makes complete distal mechanicaldecoupling difficult. Instead the joints are decoupled in software.

澳门新葡亰平台游戏,3.2灵活的指头

 多少个自由度的灵活手指(图4)蕴含

         手指支架,

         轭,

         几个近侧手指段半壳,

         解耦连杆组件,

         中指段,

         远侧手指段,

         四个三番五次连杆和弹簧以清除间隙(未在图中显得)。

图5手指底座凸轮

手指的底盘接头具备七个自由度:偏航(+ / -

25度)和俯仰(I00度)。那个活动由多个以不相同措施专门的工作的导螺杆组件提供。从螺杆组件延伸的短丝缆连接到近端指状部分半壳中的凸轮槽中(图5)。使用丝缆清除了拍卖多少个自由度尾巴部分接头所需的大气知情。凸轮槽用于调节连接丝缆从导螺杆组件的波折半径(保持十分的大以免止对丝缆施压并同意利用过大的丝缆)。凹槽还允许在方方面面手指运动范围内保障大概恒定的杠杆臂。由于总是丝缆保持相当的短(大约1英寸)何况其屈曲半径受到调控(允许丝缆的直径相对非常大(0.07英寸)),因而丝缆在办被害人旋律上像硬棒相通起效果(接近手掌)和像相反方向的弹簧相同。换句话说,丝缆长度与其直径的百分比使得

         丝缆丰硕坚硬以将手指推开,

         但若是手指接触或撞击物体,则丝缆会卷曲,使手指塌陷。

 图6:解耦链接

灵活手指的第二和第三个难题直接相接,以便它们以也正是的角度关闭。那几个接头由叁个独自的导螺杆组件通过多少个分别联动装置驱动(图6)。丝杠组件上的短丝缆连接到去耦链路中的枢轴丝缆终端。丝缆中的卷曲允许致动穿过多个自由度的基部接头,而无需复杂的单位。连杆的布置使得丝缆的弧长度大致恒定,不管基座接头的职责怎么(比较图6中的弧A与弧B)。那使得远端关节的活动大约独立于基部关节。图2负有近端和远端段,何况在统筹上好像于灵巧指状物,但有所明显越多的偏航行路线程和细长的间隔。拇指也以那样的角度安装在手掌上,使得运动范围的增添导致人类拇指活动的创造仿真。这种设置方式得以使手实践抓握,那与经常见到的将拇指直接放在手指对面包车型大巴惯例相比较是不大概的[2,3,14]。拇指基座关节具备70度偏航和110度俯仰。远端关节有80度的间距。连杆手指安装图7:抓住手指基座关节的动作与灵巧的指头相仿,但净增了凸轮式制动器以保障丝缆的波折半径在特大偏航角度时十分的大。拇指的远侧部分以周边于决定手指的点子被驱动通过分离联合浮动装置。拇指基座的扩大偏航行路线程使完全远端机械解耦困难。相反,关节在软件中解耦。

3.5

Palm

3.3

Grasping Fingers

The grasping fingers have three pitchjoints each with 90 degrees of travel. The fingers are actuated by oneleadscrew assembly and use the same cam groove (figure 5) in the proximalfinger segment half shell as with the manipulating fingers. The 7-bar fingerlinkage is similar to that of the dexterous fingers except that the decouplinglink is removed and the linkage ties to the finger mount (figure 7). In thisconfiguration each joint of the finger closes down with approximately equalangles. An alternative configuration of the finger that is currently beingevaluated replaces the distal link with a stiff limited travel spring to allowthe finger to better conform while grasping an object.

3.5手掌

3.3抓握手指

抓握手指有八个俯仰关节,各类难点都有90度的路程。手指由叁个导螺杆组件致动,而且在操作指状物的近端手指段半壳中央银行使同大器晚成的凸轮槽(图5)。 7-bar指形连杆与灵巧指形的指形连杆相通,差别之处在于去耦连杆被拆毁并且连杆与手指支架连接(图7)。在这里种布局中,手指的各类难点都以大约也便是的角度关闭。当前正在评估的指头的代表配置用刚性有限路程弹簧替代远侧连杆,以允许手指在吸引物体时更加好地符合。

 3.4 Thumb

The thumb is key to obtaining many of thegrasps required for interfacing with EVA tools. The thumb shown in The palmmechanism (figure 8) provides a mount for the two grasping fingers and acupping motion that enhances stability for tool grasps. This allows the hand tograsp an object in a manner that aligns the tool's axis with the forearm rollaxis. This is essential for the use of many common tools, like screwdrivers.The mechanism includes two pivoting metacarpals, a common shaft, and twotorsion springs. The grasping fingers and their leadscrew assemblies mount intothe metacarpals. The metacarpals are attached to the palm on a common shaft.The first torsion spring is placed between the two metacarpals providing a pivotingforce between the two. The second torsion spring is placed between the secondmetacarpal and the palm, forcing both of the metacarpals back against the palm.The actuating leadscrew assembly mounts into the palm and the short cableattaches to the cable termination on the first metacarpal. The torsion springsare sized such that as the leadscrew assembly pulls down the first metacarpal, thesecond metacarpal folows a troughly half the angle of the first. In this waythe palm is able to cup in a way similar to that of the human hand without thefingers colliding.

Figure 9 Wrist mechanism

 COMMON SHAFT PALM CASTING The wrist isactuated in a differential manner through two linear actuators (figure 9). Thelinear actuators consist of a slider riding in recirculating ball tracks and acustom, hollow shaft brushless DC motor with an integral ballscrew. Theactuators attach to the palm through ball joint links, which are mounted in thepre-loaded ball sockets. Figure 8: Palm mechanism The fingers are mounted tothe palm at slight angles to each other as opposed to the common practice ofmounting them parallel to each other• This mounting allows the fingers to closetogether similar to a human hand. To further improve the reliability andruggedness of the hand, all of the fingers are mounted on shock loaders. Thisallows them to take very high impacts without incurring damage.

3.4拇指

大拇指是获得众多与EVA工具接口所需的握手的要紧。手掌机构(图8)中显得的大拇指为三个抓手提供了二个支架,并提供了二个拔??动作,巩固了工具抓握的安澜。那允许手以使工具的轴线与前臂摆荡轴线对齐的法子吸引物体。这对非常多常用工具(如螺丝刀)的应用极其首要。该机构包涵三个枢转掌骨,四个同步的轴和八个扭力弹簧。抓手指和她俩的导螺杆组件安装到掌骨。掌骨连接在雷同根轴上的魔掌上。第贰个扭力弹簧放置在八个掌骨之间,在两个之间提供枢转力。第贰个扭力弹簧放置在第二掌骨和手掌之间,反逼两掌骨靠在手心上。致动导螺杆组件安装在掌心中,短丝缆连接到第意气风发掌骨上的丝缆终端。扭力弹簧的尺码使伏贴导螺杆组件拉下第风姿罗曼蒂克掌骨时,第二掌骨以四分之二的角度折叠第大器晚成掌骨。通过这种办法,手掌能够以与人员相同的主意进行杯盏的揉搓而不会生动手指碰撞。

图9手腕机构

 普通轴手掌铸造手段通过两个线性实践器以差异方法驱动(图9)。线性实行器由三个滑块和三个带有八个整机滚珠丝杠的定制空心轴无刷直流动机组成。实践器通过设置在事先加载的球座中的球节连杆连接到手心。图8:手掌机制手指互相以细小的角度安装在手掌上,那与将手指安装在交互平行的相似做法反而。•这种设置使手指可以像人手一样接近在风流倜傥道。为了进一步进步手的可信性和稳定性,全数手指都设置在减震垫上。那使他们能够在不引起损坏的图景下收受超高的熏陶。

 3.6 Wrist/Forearm

 Design The wrist (figure 9) provides anunconstrained pass through to maximize the bend radii for the finger flexshafts while approximating the wrist pitch and yaw travel of a pressurizedastronaut glove. Total travel is +/- 70 degrees of pitch and +/- 30 degrees ofyaw. The two axes intersect with each other and the centerline of the forearmroll axis. When connected with the Robonaut Arm [19], these three axes combineat the center of the wrist cuff yielding an efficient kinematic solution. Thecuff is mounted to the forearm through shock loaders for added safety. Figure10: Forearm The forearm is configured as a ribbed shell with six cover plates.Packaging all the required equipment in an EVA forearm size volume is achallenging task. The six cover plates are skewed at a variety of angles andkeyed mounting tabs are used to minimize forearm surface area. Mounted on twoof the cover plates are the wrist linear actuators, which fit into the forearmsymmetrically to maintain efficient kinematics. The other four cover plateprovides mounts for clusters of three finger motors (Figure 10). Symmetry isnot required here since the flex shafts easily bend to accommodate odd angles.The cover plates are also designed to act as heat sinks. Along with the motors,custom hybrid motor driver chips are mounted to the cover plates.

3.6腕/前臂

 设计手腕(图9)提供了无约束的经过,以最大化手指柔性轴的波折半径,同一时候肖似加压宇宙航银行人士手套的手腕节距和偏航行路线程。总行程为+/- 70度的俯仰和+/- 30度的偏航。这两条轴线相互交叉,并与前臂滚动轴的宗旨线相交。当与Robonaut Arm [19]连天时,那四个轴线结合在花招袖口的中坚,发生神速的运动学解决方案。袖套通过减震器安装在前臂上,以追加安全性。

图10:前臂前臂配置为带两个盖板的肋状外壳。将装有须要的配备包装在EVA前臂尺寸体量中是风姿浪漫项具有挑衅性的天职。五个盖板以各样角度倾斜,並且选拔键控安装接片来使前臂表面面积最小化。腕部直线试行器安装在三个盖板上,对称地定位在前臂上以保全高效的活动。其它三个盖板为多少个手指马达组提供支架(图10)。这里不须求对称,因为柔性轴轻易卷曲以适应奇异的角度。盖板也安插用作散热器。随着电机,定制混合电机驱动器微电路安装在盖板上。

4

Integration Challenges

As might be expected, many integrationchallenges arose during hand prototyping, assembly and initial testing. Some ofthe issues and current resolutions follow. Many of the parts in the hand useextremely complex geometry to minimize the part count and reduce the size ofthe hand. Fabrication of these parts was made possible by casting them inaluminum directly from stereo lithography models. This process yieldsrelatively high accuracy parts at a minimal cost. The best example of this isthe palm, which has a complex shape, and over 50 holes in it, few of which areorthogonal to each other. Finger joint control is achieved through antagonisticcable pairs for the yaw joints and pre-load springs for the pitch joints.Initially, single compression springs connected through ball links to the frontof the dexterous fingers applied insufficient moment to the base joints at thefull open position. Double tension springs connected to the backs of thefingers improved pre-loading over more of the joint range. However, desiredpre-loading in the fully open position resulted in high forces during closing.Work on establishing the optimal pre-load and making the preload forces linearover the full range is under way. The finger cables have presented bothmechanical mounting and mathematical challenges. The dexterous fingers usesingle mounting screws to hold the cables in place while avoiding cable pinch.This configuration allows the cables to flex during finger motion and yields areasonably constant lever arm. However assembly with a single screw isdifficult especially when evaluating different cable diameters. The thumb usesa more secure lock that includes a plate with a protrusion that securely pressesdown on the cable in its channel. The trade between these two techniques iscontinuing. Similar cable attachment devices are also evolving for the otherfinger joints. The cable flexibility makes closed form kinematics difficult.The bend of the cable at the mounting points as the finger moves is not easy tomodel accurately. Any closed form model requires simplifying assumptionsregarding cable bending and moving contact with the finger cams. A simplersolution that captures all the relevant data employs multi-dimensional datamaps that are empirically obtained off-line. With a sufficiently highresolution these maps provide accurate forward and inverse kinematics data. Thewrist design (figure 9) evolved from a complex multibar mechanism to a simplertwo-dimensional slider crank hook joint. Initially curved ball links connectedthe sliders to the palm with cams that rotated the links to avoid the wristcuff during pitch motion. After wrist cuff and palm redesign, the presentstraight ball links were achieved. The finger leadscrews are non-back drivableand in an enveloping grasp ensure positive capture in the event of a powerfailure. If power can not be restored in a timely fashion, it may be necessaryfor the other Robonaut hand [19] or for an EVA crew person to manually open thehand. An early hand design incorporated a simple back out ring that throughfriction wheels engaged each finger drive train and slowly opened each fingerjoint. While this works well in the event of a power failure, experiments withthe coreless brushless DC motors revealed a problem when a motor fails due tooverheating. The motor winding insulation heats up, expands and seizes themotor, preventing back-driving. A new contingency technique for opening thehand that will accommodate both motor seizing and power loss is beinginvestigated.

4整合挑衅

正如所料,在手工原型,装配和起来测验中冒出了数不尽并入挑战。其中有的标题和当下的减轻方案如下。手中的大多部件都使用特别复杂的几何样子,以尽量缩小零件数量并压缩手的尺寸。这一个部件的制作可以透过直接从立体光刻模型将它们铸造在铝中来落实。这么些进程以细小的血本发生对峙高精度的预制构件。在那之中最佳的例证便是手掌,形状复杂,有50七个洞,当中很稀少相互正交的。

手指关节调整是经过用于偏航关节的对阵丝缆对和用来俯仰关节的预加载弹簧实现的。最先,通过球形连杆连选拔灵巧指状物的前部的单个压缩弹簧在全开地方向基部关节施加不足的力矩。连接到手指背部的双李尚弹簧订正了更加多要点范围的预加载。不过,在完全展开地方期待的预加载在关门时期形成较高的力。正在进展确立最好预加载和使预加载力在全方位范围内线性化的办事。指状丝缆建议了教条主义安装和数学挑衅。灵巧的指头使用单个安装螺丝将丝缆固定到位,同有的时候候防止丝缆夹紧。这种布局允许丝缆在手指运动时期屈曲并发生合理定位的杠杆臂。不过,在评估不相同的丝缆直径时,使用单个螺钉实行组装很狼狈。拇指派用更安全的锁,在那之中包含一块带有非凡部分的机械,该平板可稳定地按压其通道中的丝缆。这三种本领之间的贸易正在持续。相像的丝缆连接装置也在为别的手指关节演化。丝缆的灵活性使封闭式运动学变得紧Baba。手指运动时设置点处的丝缆盘曲不易准确建立模型。任何密封模型都亟待简化有关丝缆盘曲和与手指凸轮接触的如若。捕获全体相关数据的更简约的解决方案选取凭经验在线离线获取的多维数据图。具备丰富高的分辨率,那几个地图提供规范的正向和反向运动学数据。

招数设计(图9)从繁杂的多杆机构衍生和变化为更简约的二维滑块曲柄吊钩接头。最先卷曲的球形连杆将滑块连接到手心,并包罗凸轮,以便在俯仰运动时期旋转连杆以逃避腕带。在重复设计手法袖口和手掌之后,完结了最近的直线球链接。手指引向螺杆不可逆向驱动(应该代表没电时无法动,有电时能够双向动),並且在包络抓握中可保险在爆发电源故障时贯彻正向捕捉。要是无法立即复苏重力,只怕必要任何罗布onaut手[19]依旧EVA机组职员手动张开手。

前期的手部设计组合了三个简易的退出环,通过摩擦轮啮合每一种手指传动系,并暂缓展开各样手指关节。尽管这种景色在发出电源故障时运营优质,但无芯无刷直流动机的实验发布了当电机由于过热而产生故障时的标题。电机绕组绝缘加热,扩展并占用电机,防止反向驱动。正在博士机勃勃种新的应急技能,用于展开将容纳马萨格勒布死和功率损失的手。

5

Initial Finger Control Design and Test

Before any operation can occur, basicposition control of the Robonaut hand joints must be developed. Depending onthe joint, finger joints are controlled either by a single motor or anantagonistic pair of motors. Each of these motors is attached to the fingerdrive train assembly shown in figure 3. A simple PD controller is used toperform motor position control tests. When the finger joint is unloaded,position control of the motor drive system is simple. When the finger isloaded, two mechanical effects influence the drive system dynamics. The flexshaft, which connects the motor to the lead screw, winds up and acts as atorsional spring. Although adding an extra system dynamic, the high ratio ofthe lead screw sufficiently masks the position error caused by the state of theflex shaft for teleoperated control. The second effect during loading is theincreased frictional force in the lead screw. The non-backdrivable nature ofthe motor drive system effectively decouples the motor from the applied force.Therefore, during joint loading, the motor sees the increasing torque requiredto turn the lead screw. The motor is capable of supplying the torque requiredto turn the lead screw during normal loading. However, thermal constraintslimit the motor's endurance at high torque. To accommodate this constraint, thecontroller incorporates force feedback from the strain gauges installed on thelead screw shell. The controller utilizes the non-back drivability of the motordrive system and properly turns down motor output torque once a desired forceis attained. During a grasp, a command to move in a direction that willincrease the force beyond the desired level is ignored. If the forced rops offor a command in a direction that will relieve the force is issued, the motor revertsto normal position control operation. This control strategy successfully lowersmotor heating to acceptable levels and reduces power consumption. To perform jointcontrol, the kinematics, which relates motor output joint output, must be determined. As statedearlier, due to varying cable interactions a closed form kinematics algorithm isnot tractable. Once the finger joint hall-effect based position sensors arecalibrated using are solver, a semi-autonomous kinematic calibration procedure forboth forward and inverse kinematics is used to build look-up tables. Variationsbetween kinematics and hall-effect sensor outputs during operation are seen inregions where the pre-loading springs are not effective. Designs using differentspring strategies are underdevelopment to resolve this problem. To enhance positioningaccuracy, a closed loop finger joint position controller employing hall-effect sensorposition feedback is used as part of this kinematic calibration procedure. ableto successfully manipulate many EVA tool.

5早先手指调节规划和测量检验

在其他操作发生从前,必得支出罗布onaut手关节的着力地方调控。依据难题的例外,手指关节能够由单个电机或绝没有错电机控制。每一种电机都三番三遍到图3所示的手指传动系组件上。七个大约的PD调节器用于实施电飞机地点置调控测验。

当手指关节卸载时,电机驱动系统的职分调整很简单。

当手指装入时,八个机械效应会影响驱动系统的重力。

    将电机连接纳丝杠的柔性轴卷起并视作扭转弹簧。即便扩充了一个外加的系统动态,但高比率的丝杠足以覆盖由遥控操作的柔性轴状态引起的职位基值误差。

加载进度中的第二个影响是充实了丝杠的摩擦力。电机驱动系统的不可逆性质使电机与施加的力有效地分别。由此,在难点加载时期,电机会看见转动丝杠所需的加码的扭矩。电机可以在平常负载时提供转动丝杠所需的扭矩。不过,热节制会约束电机在高转矩时的耐久性。为了适应那后生可畏范围,调控器将设置在导螺杆壳体上的应变仪的力反馈结合起来。调控器选拔电机驱动系统的无四驱动技能,并在达到所需的力后无误地下跌电机输出扭矩。在抓取进度中,将会沿着多个偏向移动的指令将被忽略,该方向会将力增到过量所需的品位。假设强制断电或在三个能够释放力的趋势产生贰个下令,电机将复苏平常之处调控操作。该调控计谋成功地将电机加热降低到可选择的程度并减弱耗能。

为了实践同步决定,必需分明与发动机输出联合输出有关的运动特征。如前所述,由于丝缆交互成效的不如,密闭格局的运动学算法不易处理。生机勃勃旦基于手指关节霍尔效应的职责传感器使用解算器进行校准,则选取用刘和平向和反向运动学的活动运动学园准程序来创设查找表。运维时期霍尔传感器输出与霍尔效应传感器输出之间的变通可以预知于预加载弹簧无效的区域。使用不一样弹簧战术的安顿性不足以消亡那一个主题素材。为巩固定位精度,接纳霍尔效应传感器地点反馈的闭环手指关节地点调节器作为此运动学园准程序的一有个别。能够得逞调控超多EVA工具。

SeveralexampletoolmanipulationsusingtheRobonauthand underteleoperatedcontrolareshowninfigures11and12. Figure11:ExamplesoftheRobonaut Handusingenvelopingpowergraspstoholdtools An importantsafetyfeatureof thehand,itsabilityto passivelycloseinresponsetoacontactonthebackof thefingers,causesproblemsfor closedloopjoint controlduringnormaloperation.Furtherrefinementof the kinematiccalibrationandthestraingaugeforcesensorsirequiredtoreliablydeterminewhenthefingersarebeing uncontrollablycosed.Oncethisinformation, alongwithabettermodelforthedrivetraindynamicsisavailable,thejointcontrollercanbemodifiedtodistinguishteloaded fromthenormaloperatingmode.Althoughconsiderableworkstillneedstobedone,joint controlsatisfactoryforteleoperatedcontrolof thehand hasbeenattained. For initial tests,the handwascontrolledin joint modefrominputsderivedfromtheCyberglove®wornbytheoperator.TheCybergloveuses bendsensors,whichareinterpretedbytheCyberglove electronicstodeterminethepositionof 18actionsof theoperator'shand. Someof theseactionsareabsolute positionsoffingerjointswhileotherarerelativemotions betweenjoints.Thechallengeisdevelopingamapping betweenthe 18 absoluteandrelativejointpositions determinedby theCybergloveandthe12jointsof the Robonaut hand. Thismapping must result in the Robonaut hand tracking the operator's hand as well aspossible. While some joints are directly mapped, others required heuristic algorithmsto fuse data from several glove sensors to produce a hand joint position command.In conjunction with an auto mated glove calibration program, a satisfactory mappingis experimentally obtainable.

Figure12:ExamplesoftheRobonaut Hand

Using these custom mappings, operators are

using dexterousgraspsforfinetoolmaipulationTofacilitatetestingofthehandbaselevelpadsasshown infigures11,12werefabricatedfromDow Cornings Silastic®E. Thepadsprovideanonslipcompliant surfacenecessary forpositivelygraspinganobject.Thesepadswillserveasthefoundationfortactilesensorsandbe coveredwithaprotectiveglove.Futureplansincludethedevelopment of agraspcriteriameasureforthestabilityofthehandgrasp.Thesecriteriawillbeusedtoassisttheoperatorindeterminingif agrasp isacceptable.Sincethebaselineoperationplandoesnot involveforcefeedbacktotheoperator,visualfeedback onlymaybeinsufficient toproperlydetermineif agraspisstable.Usingsomeknowledgeof theobjectwhichisbeinggraspedinconjunctionwiththeexistingleadscrew forcesensorsandasmallsetofadditional tactilesensors installedonthefingersandpalm,thecontrolsystemwilldeterminetheacceptabilityof thegraspandindicatethat measuretotheoperator.Theoperatorcanthendecide howbestousethisdatainreconfiguringthegrasptoa morestableconfiguration.Thisgraspcriteriameasurecouldevolveintoanimportantpartof anautonomous graspingsystem. 6 Conclusions TheRobonaut Hand is presented. This highly anthropomorphic human scale hand builtat the NASA Johnson Space Center is designed to interface with EVA crewinterfaces thereby increasing the number of robotically compatible operationsavailable to the International Space Station. Several novel mechanisms aredescribed that allow the Robonaut hand to achieve capabilities approaching thatof an astronaut wearing a pressurized space suited glove. The initial jointbased control strategy is discussed and example tool manipulations areillustrated. References 1. Lovchik, C. S., Difiler, M. A., Compact DexterousRobotic Hand. Patent Pending. 2. Salisbury, J. K., & Mason, M. T., RobotHands and the Mechanics of Manipulation. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1985. 3.Jacobsen, S., et al., Design of the Utah/M.I.T. Dextrous Hand. Proceedings ofthe IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, San Francisco, CA,1520-1532, 1986. 4. Bekey, G., Tomovic, R., Zeljkovic, I., Control Architecturefor the Belgrade/USC Hand. Dexterous Robot Hands, 136-149, Springer-Verlag, NewYork, 1990. 5. Maeda, Y., Susumu, T., Fujikawa, A., Development of anAnthropomorphic Hand (Mark-l). Proceedings of the 20 th International Symposiumon Industrial Robots, Tokyo, Japan, 53-544, 1989.

  1. Ali, M., Puffer, R.,Roman, H., Evaluation of a Multifingered Robot Hand for Nuclear Power PlantOperations and Maintenance Tasks. Proceedings of the 5 th World Conference onRobotics Research, Cambridge, MA, MS94-217, 1994. 7. Hartsfield, J., SmartHands: Flesh is Inspiration for Next Generation of Mechanical Appendages. SpaceNews Roundup, NASA Johnson Space Center, 27(35), page 3, Houston, TX, 1988. 8.Carter, E. Monford, G., Dexterous End Effector Flight Demonstration,Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications andResearch, Houston, TX, 95-102, 1993. 9. Nagatomo, M. et al, On the Results ofthe MFD Flight Operations, Press Release, National Space Development Agency ofJapan, August, 1997. 10. Stieber, M., Trudel, C., Hunter, D., Robotic systemsfor the International Space Station, Proceedings of the IEEE InternationalConference on Robotics and Automation, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 3068-3073,1997. 11. Hirzinger, G., Brunner, B., Dietrich, J., Heindl, J., Sensor BasedSpace Robotics - ROTEX and its Telerobotic Features, IEEE Transactions onRobotics and Automation, 9(5), 649-663, 1993. 12. Akin, D., Cohen, R., Developmentof an Interchangeable End Effector Mechanism for the Ranger TeleroboticVehicle., Proceedings of the 28 th Aerospace Mechanism Symposium, Cleveland OH,79-89, 1994 13. Jau, B., Dexterous Tele-manipulation with Four Fingered HandSystem. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics andAutomation,. Nagoya, Japan, 338-343, 1995. 14. Butterfass, J., Hirzinger, G.,Knoch, S. Liu, H., DLR's Multi-sensory Articulated Hand Part I: HardandSoftware Architecture. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference onRobotics and Automation, Leuven Belgium, 2081-2086, 1998. 15. ExtravehicularActivity (EVA) Hardware Generic Design Requirements Document, JSC 26626,NASA/Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, July,
    1. Shimoga, K.B., RobotGrasp Synthesis: A Survey, International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 15,no. 3, pp. 230-266, 1996. 17. Mirza, K. and Orin, D., General Formulation forForce Distribution in Power Grasp, Proceedings of the IEEE InternationalConference on Robotics and Automation, p.880-887, 1994. 18. Li, L., Cox, B.,Diftler, M., Shelton, S. , Rogers, B., Development of a Telepresence ControlledAmbidextrous Robot for Space Applications. Proceedings of the IEEEInternational Conference on Robotics and Automation, Minneapolis, MN, 58-63,1996. 19. Li, L., Taylor, E., EWS Robonaut: Work in Progress, Proceedings ofthe International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automationin

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